With the exception of water Poultry Nutrition, these nutrients are provided by the ingredients that make-up the diet. Ingredients are classified as:
• Cereal Grains
• Animal Proteins
• Vegetables Proteins
• Vegetable Fats
• Animal Fats
• Micro Minerals
• Macro Minerals
• Vitamin Premixes
Corn, which is low in lysine
Soybean meal, which is low in methionine
By themselves neither corn nor soybean meal can provide enough essential amino acids to maximize performance.
But when the two are combined, they provide adequate amounts of the essential amino acids and are said to complement each other.
Supply Energy* – Needed for heat and movement Carb”s Sugars Starches Gums Etc.
Cereal Grains – Corn, Oats, Barley, Rice, etc.
*Chickens need about 1,300 to 1,500kcal/lb of energy daily!! 1 calorie is the energy required to raise 1gm of water 1oC, From 14.5 to 15.5oC. 1 kcal is 1000 calories.
Fats and Oils Corn Oil or other Vegetable Oils Animal Fats
Not really an essential nutrient,other than Linoleic acid (18:2 fatty acid).
Animal fats – solid, relatively inexpensive.
Problems with digestion by young birds.
Vegetable oils – liquid, expensive Pellet quality, dustiness of feed
Energy important because it governs feed intake
high energy —> low feed intake
low energy —> high feed intake
Sources of energy – everything in the diet other than minerals.
Metabolizable energy (ME) = Energy intake as feed minus energy appearing in urine and feces.
What about them Vitamins?
With the exception of Vitamin C, Poultry Require all the vitamins!
Fat Soluable – A, D*, E, K
*Poultry cannot use just any form of D, must be D3, cholcalciferol!
Water Soluable: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Pyridoxine (B6) Cyanocobalamin (B12) Pantothenic Acid
** very high requirement by poultry, unlike 4 footed animals, Very little is synthesized by the chick. Generous safety factor 2-10x requirement. Storage loss -> time, temperature, humidity
Vitamins act a catalysts for many reactions, and re required in small quantities. They can occur as vitamins per se or as precursors (provitamins).
Time for Minerals